Sony 70-200mm f/2.8

Full-Frame E-Mount FE GM (2016-)

Sample Images   Intro   Format   Compatibility

Specs   Accessories   Performance   Compared

Usage   Recommendations

Please help KenRockwell..com

Sony 70-200mm f/2.8 FE GM

Sony FE 70-200mm f/2.8 GM (77mm filters, 54.5 oz./1,545g, 3.1'/1m close focus, about $2,598). bigger. I'd get mine at Adorama, at Amazon, at B&H or at Crutchfield.

This ad-free website's biggest source of support is when you use those or any of these links to my personally-approved sources when you get anything, regardless of the country in which you live. Sony does not seal its boxes in any way, so never buy at retail or any other source not on my personally approved list since you'll have no way of knowing if you're missing accessories, getting a defective, damaged, returned, store demo or used lens. Buy only from the approved sources I use myself for the best prices, service, return policies and selection. Thanks for helping me help you! Ken.

 

June 2017   Sony   Sony Lenses   Zeiss   Nikon   Canon   Fuji   LEICA   All Reviews

Canon 70-200/2.8 L IS II

Nikon 70-200/2.8 FL VR

 

Sample Images

Top   Sample Images   Intro   Format   

Compatibility   Specs   Accessories   

Performance   Compared

Usage   Recommendations

Sony 70-200mm f/2.8 Sample Image

Palm, 12 June 2017. Sony A9, Sony 70-200mm f/2.8 GM at 70mm at f/2.8 at 1/320 at Auto ISO 100. bigger or full-resolution © file.

Ultrasharp wide-open at 70mm, so long as it's in focus.

 

Sony 70-200mm f/2.8 Sample Image

Palm, 12 June 2017. Sony A9, Sony 70-200mm f/2.8 GM at 70mm at f/2.8 at 1/40 hand-held at Auto ISO 100. bigger or full-resolution © file.

Even more in focus at f/8, and no problem hand-holding at 1/40.

 

Sony 70-200mm f/2.8 Sample Image

Palm, 12 June 2017. Sony A9, Sony 70-200mm f/2.8 GM at 70mm at f/14 at 1/13 hand-held at Auto ISO 100. bigger or full-resolution © file.

Even more in focus at f/14, and no problem hand-holding at 1/13!

 

Sony 70-200mm f/2.8 Sample Image

Tile Roof, 09 June 2017. Sony A9, Sony 70-200mm f/2.8 GM at 200mm at f/2.8 at 1/1,250 at Auto ISO 100. bigger or camera-original © file.

Ultrasharp wide-open edge-to-edge at 200mm where it's in focus along the front rain gutter. It doesn't get any better than this.

 

Introduction

Top   Sample Images   Intro   Format   

Compatibility   Specs   Accessories   

Performance   Compared

Usage   Recommendations

Good   Bad   Missing

Adorama Pays Top Dollar for Used Gear

B&H Photo - Video - Pro Audio

I buy only from these approved sources. I can't vouch for ads below.

This Sony 70-200/2.8 GM is the best 70-200mm lens available for any Sony camera. You can't buy better at any price: it's sharp, well-made, has three very handy focus-lock buttons on the front of the barrel, and most importantly, focuses super-fast on Sony's cameras, especially the state-of-the-art Sony A9.

If you're serious about your full-frame Sony, this is the most serious telephoto zoom made by anyone for it.

 

Good

● Real mechanical manual focus ring with real instant manual-focus override, even if the power is off. Just move the ring and the focus follows, instantly.

● World's closest-focussing professional 70-200mm f/2.8.

● Very fast and essentially silent autofocus.

● Three focus lock buttons.

● Ultrasharp at every setting, especially wide-open at f/2.8.

● Excellent bokeh.

● Fast f/2.8 for low light.

● Focus range limiter.

● Optical image stabilization works along with your camera's sensor-shift stabilization.

 

Bad

● $2,600.

● Plastic filter thread.

● Big and heavy.

 

Missing

● No focus or depth-of-field scales.

● No infra-red focus indices.

 

Format

Top   Sample Images   Intro   Format   

Compatibility   Specs   Accessories   

Performance   Compared

Usage   Recommendations

This is a full-frame lens and I'm reviewing it as such.

It works great on APS-C cameras and you may make the usual inferences for them.

This full-frame pro lens is overkill for APS-C; you're paying a huge premium in size and money for this full frame lens, and 62% of its image area is simply wasted with the cropped sensors of APS-C cameras. For APS-C cameras, an APS-C lens like the Sony 55-210mm offers a wider zoom range in a much smaller and lighter package for less than one-seventh the price and pretty much takes the same pictures with a lot less to carry.

If you get this lens, it's best used on full-frame, but will work great on APS-C.

 

Compatibility

Top   Sample Images   Intro   Format   

Compatibility   Specs   Accessories   

Performance   Compared

Usage   Recommendations

This works on all Sony E-mount cameras, full-frame and crop-sensor. This includes all the NEX, A7, A6xxx and A5xxx series cameras.

It will not work on any Minolta MAXXUM 35mm SLR or any Sony A-mount DSLR. Those use the old A mount which was actually the Minolta MAXXUM mount from 1987.

 

Specifications

Top   Sample Images   Intro   Format   

Compatibility   Specs   Accessories   

Performance   Compared

Usage   Recommendations

 

Name

Sony 70-200mm f/2.8 FE GM

Sony FE 70-200mm f/2.8 GM OSS. bigger.

Sony calls this the FE 2.8/70-200mm GM OSS:

    FE: Full-frame coverage, E-mount.

    GM: "G Master," which means Sony's best.

    OSS: "Optical Steady Shot," which is Sony's internal optical image stabilization.

 

Optics

Sony 70-200mm f/2.8 Lens Construction

Sony 70-200/2.8 construction. "Extreme" Aspherical, Super ED, ED and Aspherical elements. bigger.

23 elements in 18 groups.

3 aspherical elements, one of which is called "Extreme" aspherical.

4 ED extra low dispersion elements.

2 "Super ED" extra low dispersion elements.

"Nano" anti reflection coating.

Fluorine front coating to resist dirt and fingerprints.

Focus and zoom are internal.

 

Diaphragm

Sony 70-200mm f/2.8 FE GM

Sony FE 70-200mm f/2.8 GM OSS at 200mm at f/2.8 (diaphragm not visible). bigger.

11 rounded blades.

Stops down to f/22.

 

Focal Length

70 ~ 200mm.

When used on APS-C, it sees the same angles of view as a 100 ~ 300mm lens sees when used on a full-frame camera.

See also Crop Factor.

 

Angle of View

34º ~ 12.5º diagonal on full-frame.

23° ~ 8° diagonal on APS-C.

 

Autofocus

Floating internal focus: no external movement as focussed, so no air or dust is sucked in.

Two separate focus groups: ring SSM (Super Sonic Wave Motor) for the front group, and a double linear motor for the rear group.

The double linear motor can wobble the focus for the contrast detection AF system while shooting video.

Real-time feedback from multiple position sensors allow the body’s AF system to operate at full capacity.

Three focus lock buttons.

Focus range limiter switch.

 

Close Focus

3.15 feet (0.96 meter).

 

Maximum Reproduction Ratio

1:4 (0.25 ×).

 

Stabilizer

Yes, internal optical stabilizer driven by a linear motor.

If used with a camera with built-in sensor-shift stabilization, the system has what Sony calls "5-axis image stabilization."

 

Filters

Plastic 77mm filter thread.

 

Tripod Collar & Foot

Sony 70-200mm f/2.8 FE GM

Sony FE 70-200mm f/2.8 GM OSS. bigger.

The collar is permanently attached, while the foot unlatches and slides off.

If you slide off the foot, there is another ¼″ × 20 tripod thread on the lens itself.

 

Hood

Sony ALC-SH145 hood

Sony ALC-SH145 hood. bigger.

Locking plastic bayonet hood included. ($73 replacement cost)

It's tougher than most, and has a locking latch release button.

It's painted off-white, with black flocking inside.

There's also a slide-up hatch to let you turn rotating polarizers and grads.

Hood weight: 3.425 oz. (97.1g), actual measured.

 

Case

Sony 70-200mm f/2.8 FE GM

Sony 70-200mm f/2.8 FE GM

Included case, front. bigger.
Included case, back. bigger.

Padded nylon case included.

 

Size

3.46" maximum diameter × 7.87" extension from flange.

88.0 mm maximum diameter × 200 mm extension from flange.

 

Weight

54.5 oz. (1,545.25 g), actual measured weight, with tripod foot.

Hood weight: 3.425 oz. (97.1g), actual measured.

Rated 52.21 oz. (1,480 g), without foot.

 

Announced

2016.

 

Sony Model Number

SEL70200GM.

 

Included

Lens.

ALC-F77S front and ALC-R1EM rear cap.

ALC-SH145 hood.

Case & strap.

 

Price, USA

$2,598, June 2017.

 

Optional Accessories

Top   Sample Images   Intro   Format   

Compatibility   Specs   Accessories   

Performance   Compared

Usage   Recommendations

 

FE 2x Teleconverter, also at Adorama.

FE 1.4x Teleconverter, also at Adorama.

 

Kirk replacement tripod foot.

 

Performance

Top   Sample Images   Intro   Format   

Compatibility   Specs   Accessories   

Performance   Compared

Usage   Recommendations

 

Overall   Autofocus   Manual Focus   Breathing

Bokeh   Distortion   Ergonomics   Falloff   Filters

Flare & Ghosts   Lateral Color Fringes   Macro

Mechanics   Sharpness   Spherochromatism

Stabilization   Sunstars

 

Overall

Performance          top

This Sony 70-200 2.8 GM is the best 70-200 available for Sony. It's sharp, focuses super fast and super close, has three focus lock buttons, has great stabilization, has a magnificent 11-blade diaphragm and has a pro-grade real manual focus ring — not an electronic simulation.

 

Autofocus

Performance          top

Use the right camera, lke the Sony A9, and autofocus is astounding. Players can run all over the field while the 70-200/2.8 and A9 keeps them in perfect focus at 20 FPS, no worries! I've never used a DSLR system that can track this well, for this long with a player running anywhere in the frame.

Autofocus is also completely silent unless you hold it to your ear. You can shoot with a silent camera in restricted, sensitive and prohibited areas without being noticed.

There are three focus lock buttons around the front. Hold any to lock focus. What's weird is that on my Sony A9 that the camera's busy green AF indicators don't extinguish instantly, but the system seems to work fine.

 

Manual Focus

performance          top

Manual focus is perfect!

The focus ring is a real, mechanical focus ring directly connected to the optics. It's not simply an encoder for a computer as in most other Sony lenses. Its response is instant and immediate, and will instantly override autofocus — unless you're in AF-C mode.

 

Focus Breathing

Performance          top

Focus breathing is the image changing size as focused in and out. It's important to cinematographers because it looks funny if the image changes size as focus gets pulled back and forth between actors. If the lens does this, the image "breathes" by growing and contracting slightly as the dialog goes back and forth.

The image from the Sony 70-200/2.8 gets larger as focussed more closely.

 

Bokeh

Performance          top

Bokeh, the feel or quality of out-of-focus areas as opposed to how far out of focus they are, is excellent. Backgrounds just melt away.

Here are samples at headshot distance:

Sony 70-200mm f/2.8 GM Bokeh

Davis 6250 weather station, 09 June 2017. bigger or camera-original © file to explore on your computer (mobile devices rarely display full resolutions images properly).

 

Sony 70-200mm f/2.8 Bokeh

Davis 6250 weather station, 09 June 2017. bigger or camera-original © file to explore on your computer (mobile devices rarely display full resolutions images properly).

 

Distortion

Performance          top

The Sony 70-200/2.8 GM has about twice as much distortion as the Nikon 70-200/2.8 FL or Canon 70-200/2.8 IS L II, but so what: Sony cameras can be set to correct it all automatically.

If you deactivate the camera's automatic correction, it's easy to correct with Photoshop's lens distortion filter.

These aren't facts or specifications, they are the results of my research that requires hours of photography and calculations on the resulting data.

Correction factors with uncorrected images on full-frame

at 3' (1 meter)

at 10' (3 meters)

at 30' (10 meters)

70mm
+2.00
+3.00
+2.70
100mm
±0.00
±0.00
±0.00
135mm
-2.00
-1.90
-1.20
200mm
-3.70
-3.70
-3.20

© 2017 KenRockwell.com. All rights reserved.

 

Ergonomics

Performance          top

This Sony 70-200/2.8 GM handles the same as other 70-200/2.8 lenses, and is a cosmetic copy of the Canon. It's the same colors and has the same switches in the same places as Canon has used for years, which is good.

Zooming is internal and the zoom ring is easily adjusted with a single fingertip. It's just as easy to zoom even if pointed directly up or down.

There is no zoom creep and zooming is perfectly spaced; it's easy to set precise framing anyplace in the range.

Focus is a real mechanical focus ring, hallelujah!

 

Falloff

Performance          top

Falloff is invisible with the camera's default "Shading Correction" ON.

 

Filters, use with

performance          top

There's no need for thin filters. I stacked four standard filters and had no vignetting on full frame at any setting — and probably could have used more.

Go ahead and use your standard rotating polarizer and grad filters.

 

Flare & Ghosts

Performance          top

This is an optically complex lens, and if you do something deliberately silly like pointing the lens at the sun and filling the rest of the frame with black, you'll see some green ghosts:

Sony 70-200mm f/2.8 Sample Image

Flare, 05 June 2017. Sony A9, Sony 70-200mm f/2.8 GM at 119mm at f/2.8 at 1/2,500 at Auto ISO 100. bigger.

You'll never see it in normal use; don't worry about it. Many people want ghosts, and even use software to add them back in to modern lenses like this!

 

Lateral Color Fringes

Performance          top

There are no color fringes as shot on Sony cameras, most of which by default correct for any that may be there.

This is excellent.

 

Macro

Performance          top

Macro performance is very good; it gets very close and stays very sharp:

Sony 70-200mm f/2.8 GM Macro Performance

Kienzle Flieger Automat 800/2843, 05 June 2017. Sony A9, Sony 70-200mm f/2.8 GM at 200mm at close focus distance at f/8 at 1/640 at Auto ISO 100. bigger or camera-original © file.

 

Sony 70-200mm f/2.8 GM Macro Performance

1,200 x 900 pixel crop from above. Sony A9, Sony 70-200mm f/2.8 GM at 200mm at close focus distance at f/8 at 1/640 at Auto ISO 100. bigger or camera-original © file.

If this crop is about 12" (30cm) wide on your screen, then the complete image printed at this same extreme magnification would be about 40 x 60" (1 x 1.5 meters). You're seeing the actual texture of the watch face and case.

If this crop is about 6" (15cm) wide on your screen, then the complete image printed at this same extreme magnification would be about 20 x 30" (50 x 75 cm).

It's super-sharp stopped down as shown above.

Wide-open at f/2.8 it seems a little softer due to spherochromatism, which appears on areas only slightly out of focus (nothing is in perfect focus in this macro photo):

Sony 70-200mm f/2.8 GM Macro Performance

Kienzle Flieger Automat 800/2843, 05 June 2017. Sony A9, Sony 70-200mm f/2.8 GM at 200mm at close focus distance at f/2.8 at 1/5,000 at Auto ISO 100. bigger or camera-original © file.

 

Mechanical Quality

Performance          top

Sony 70-200mm f/2.8 FE GM

Sony FE 70-200mm f/2.8 GM OSS. bigger.

This Sony 70-200 is made pretty well, with both metal and plastic on the outside. Since Sony is trying to bury Nikon and one-up Canon I would expect a little more here; it's nice, but not as tough as it could be.

Sony claims a sealed dust- and moisture-resistant design.

 

Front Bumper

None.

 

Filter Threads

Plastic.

 

Hood Bayonet Mount

Plastic.

 

Front Barrel

Metal.

 

Focus Ring

Rubber-covered metal.

 

Mid Barrel

Section with focus lock buttons: plastic.

The buttons are plastic, too.

 

Zoom Ring

Rubber-covered metal.

 

Rear Barrel

Plastic.

 

Tripod Collar

Metal.

 

Tripod Foot

Metal.

 

Internals

Looks like mostly metal.

 

Moisture Seal at Mount

Not really; there is a gasket, but look carefully and it doesn't make contact with the mount of my A9, so it provides less sealing than you'd expect.

 

Mount

Dull chromed metal.

 

Markings

Many are engraved and filled with paint in the metal (the filter size and close-focus markings on the front barrel and the focal-length settings on zoom ring), while others are simply painted on the mid- and rear barrels.

 

Date Code

None found.

 

Identity

Little raised silver-lettered plate glued to top of barrel.

Dark gray paint on bottom rear of barrel:

Sony 70-200mm f/2.8 FE GM

Sony FE 70-200mm f/2.8 GM OSS. bigger.

 

Serial Number

A sticker glued to the bottom of the barrel, perfectly OK for a CD player but not acceptable for a piece of gear expected to receive heavy handling in the field on a daily basis.

 

Noises When Shaken

Minor to moderate clunking.

 

Made in Thailand

Sony 70-200mm f/2.8 made in Thailand

Sony FE 70-200mm f/2.8 GM OSS. bigger.

It's made in Thailand, which is hidden in black letters molded into the black plastic flare guard at the back of the lens. It's only visible on close inspection with the lens off a camera and no rear cap on the lens.

Sadly Sony puts a more legible silver sticker on the outside of the lens near the certifications and model numbers that says Sony Corp., Japan.

 

Sharpness

Performance          top

It's super-sharp, even wide open at any zoom setting:

Sony 70-200mm f/2.8 Sample Image

Eucalyptus, 08 June 2017. Sony A9, Sony 70-200mm f/2.8 GM at 200mm at f/2.8 at 1/1,600 at Auto ISO 100. bigger or camera-original © file.

The only limitations will be your skill as a photographer.

Here are Sony's MTF charts at 10 cyc/mm and 30 cyc/mm:

Sony 70-200/2.8 MTF
Sony 70-200/2.8 MTF
MTF at 70mm at f/2.8.
MTF at 200mm at f/2.8.

 

Sony 70-200/2.8 MTF
Sony 70-200/2.8 MTF
MTF at 70mm at f/8.
MTF at 200mm at f/8.

 

Spherochromatism

Performance          top

Spherochromatism, also called "color bokeh" by laymen, can cause colored fringes on out-of-focus highlights, usually seen as green fringes on backgrounds and magenta fringes on foregrounds with fast, long lenses shot wide open.

It is an advanced form of chromatic aberration in a different dimension than lateral color. Spherochromatism is most commonly seen in fast lenses of moderate focal length when shooting contrasty items at full aperture. It goes away as stopped down.

This Sony has moderate cyan/reddish-orange spherochromatism. This is great for portraits since it helps smooth blue and green backgrounds of sky and foliage, but bad for cinematography since it can lead to weird fringes on out-of-focus bright areas and points of light.

Sony 70-200mm f/2.8 Spherochromatism

Sony 70-200mm f/2.8 spherochromatism. Sony A9, Sony 70-200mm f/2.8 GM at 200mm at f/2.8 at 1/1,250 at ISO 50. bigger or camera-original © file.

 

Sony 70-200mm f/2.8 Spherochromatism

1,200 x 900 pixel crop from above. See how the white letters take on color? bigger or camera-original © file.

 

Image Stabilization

Performance          top

On my Sony A9, which has its own internal stabilization in addition to this lens' optical stabilizer, I get about 90% tripod-equivalent perfectly sharp shots hand-held at 1/15 at 200mm when looking at 24MP images at 100%, and even at 1/8 at 200mm those shots are almost as sharp as if I used a tripod; they still look perfect seeing the entire image on a 30" screen.

At 1/4 and 1/2 all the shots are blurry.

This is fantastic getting sharp shots almost all the time at 1/8 at 200mm hand-held.

 

Sunstars

Performance          top

Due to its rounded diaphragm blades, this 70-200 makes almost no sunstars on brilliant points of light.

If you do get some, they tend to be irregular.

 

Compared

Top   Sample Images   Intro   Format   

Compatibility   Specs   Accessories   

Performance   Compared

Usage   Recommendations

 

Comparison Charts

 

The Sony 70-200/2.8 GM is the closest-focussing 70-200/2.8 lens ever.

 

Versus the Sony 70-200/4 G

The Sony 70-200/4 G is smaller, lighter and less expensive.

The f/4 doesn't focus as close, and isn't quite as sharp if you look in the corners at large apertures.

If you demand the best, then you want this f/2.8 GM lens. If you just want great photos with a lot less to carry, the f/4 is better.

 

Versus Canon and Nikon

Who cares? Each of the Canon 70-200/2.8 L IS II and Nikon 70-200/2.8 FL VR only work best on a Canon or Nikon camera. If you try to adapt either to Sony, you lose much of the magic of the autofocus and optics that Sony optimizes to its cameras. While each of the Canon and Nikon use Fluorite elements for extreme sharpness, neither works as well on Sony because the Sony lens is optimized for the E-mount Sony sensors, while the other lenses are designed for a flat-field held over from film days. Ditto for AF; running a lens through an adapter doesn't work as well as this native Sony lens' AF system on Sony cameras.

If you're shooting on Sony, this Sony lens is best.

If you want to do an irrelevant armchair comparison, yes, the Canon and Nikon lenses are a little better when shot on their own brands of cameras. Each has a metal filter thread, not plastic like this Sony, and each uses fluorite elements, also absent on this Sony.

 

Usage

Top   Sample Images   Intro   Format   

Compatibility   Specs   Accessories   

Performance   Compared

Usage   Recommendations

Sony 70-200mm f/2.8 FE GM

Sony FE 70-200mm f/2.8 GM OSS. bigger.

 

AF | | MF

Leave the top slide switch at AF (autofocus).

Use the MF, Manual Focus position, only if you want to lock-out autofocus.

There's no manual-focus override in AF-C mode; use DMF or AF-S.

 

FULL | | ∞-3m

This is the focus limiter.

Leave it at FULL unless the lens gets lost and slows you down "hunting" for things closer than 10 feet (3 meters). If it does, set it to ∞-3m and it won't autofocus closer than 10 feet (3m).

 

Optical Steady Shot

Leave this ON unless you're making long exposures on a tripod.

Leave it at MODE 1 unless you're panning. Use MODE 2 if you're panning.

 

Focus Lock Buttons

These are the three unmarked round buttons between the focus and zoom rings.

Hold any of them to lock autofocus.

They can be used for recomposition, or if your target runs behind an obstruction for a moment.

These buttons are extremely useful on Canon and Nikon where we often have to recompose since they only have AF sensors in the middle of their frames, but since most Sonys like the Sony A9 have AF sensors that cover the entire frame, we don't need these as much.

 

Recommendations

Top   Sample Images   Intro   Format   

Compatibility   Specs   Accessories   

Performance   Compared

Usage   Recommendations

 

This is the best 70-200 zoom ever made for full-frame Sony cameras, and it's also the biggest and most expensive.

Personally I carry this with my Sony A9 in a Think Tank Retrospective 10 bag, which is the perfect size for this with the A9, 24-70/2.8 GM and other accessories.

 

Protective Filter

The very best protective filter is the 77mm Hoya multicoated HD3 UV which uses hardened glass and repels dirt and fingerprints, and is also multicoated.

For less money, the B+W 77mm 010 is an excellent filter, as are the multicoated version and the basic multicoated Hoya filters, but the Hoya HD3 is the toughest and the best.

Filters last a lifetime, so you may as well get the best. The Hoya HD3 stays cleaner than the others since it repels oil and dirt.

 

Where I'd get mine

I'd get mine at Adorama, at Amazon, at B&H or at Crutchfield.

 

Thank you!

This ad-free website's biggest source of support is when you use those or any of these links to approved sources when you get anything, regardless of the country in which you live. Sony does not seal its boxes in any way, so never buy at retail or any other source not on my personally approved list since you'll have no way of knowing if you're missing accessories, getting a defective, damaged, returned, store demo or used lens. I use the stores I do because they ship from secure remote warehouses where no one gets to touch your new camera before you do. Buy only from the approved sources I use myself for the best prices, service, return policies and selection.

Thanks for helping me help you!

Ken, Mrs. Rockwell, Ryan and Katie.

 

© Ken Rockwell. All rights reserved. Tous droits réservés. Alle Rechte vorbehalten.

 

Help Me Help You

I support my growing family through this website, as crazy as it might seem.

The biggest help is when you use any of these links when you get anything. It costs you nothing, and is this site's, and thus my family's, biggest source of support. These places always have the best prices and service, which is why I've used them since before this website existed. I recommend them all personally.

If you find this page as helpful as a book you might have had to buy or a workshop you may have had to take, feel free to help me continue helping everyone.

If you've gotten your gear through one of my links or helped otherwise, you're family. It's great people like you who allow me to keep adding to this site full-time. Thanks!

If you haven't helped yet, please do, and consider helping me with a gift of $5.00.

As this page is copyrighted and formally registered, it is unlawful to make copies, especially in the form of printouts for personal use. If you wish to make a printout for personal use, you are granted one-time permission only if you PayPal me $5.00 per printout or part thereof. Thank you!

 

Thanks for reading!

 

 

Mr. & Mrs. Ken Rockwell, Ryan and Katie.

 

 

 

05-14 June 2017